18. Panacea

  What you think it means: A cure。你以为单词的含义是:治愈。What it really means: A cure for a lot of things。单词的真正含义是:万灵药。

  This one is easy to confuse because the explanation is virtually the same even if the definitions are vastly different. A panacea is something that cures a lot of things all at once. For instance, penicillin is a panacea. It cures a bunch of diseases. The flu vaccine is not a panacea because it only protects against the flu。这个单词很容易混淆,因为即便定义迥异,解释起来实质还是一样的。Panacea(万灵药)能立刻治愈各种疾病。比如说,盘尼西林就是panacea(万灵药),它能治疗很多疾病;而流感疫苗就不是panacea(万灵药),因为它只预防流感。

  19. Fortuitous

  What you think it means: Lucky。你以为单词的含义是:幸运的。What it really means: By chance。单词的真正含义是:偶然碰巧。

  There is a difference between luck and chance. Unfortunately, people use the two interchangeably, so much so that it’s difficult to explain the differences anymore. Lucky is an event that happens by chance that can be described as fortunate. Winning the lottery is lucky. Fortuitous means simply by chance. For instance if you drop your basketball and it bounces

  into the road and gets hit by a car, that’s a fortuitous instance. It’s neutral, so it can be good or bad things that happen by chance。运气和机会是有区别的。可是人们总把它们交互使用,所以很难再去解释其中的区别了。运气是偶然发生的一件事,可以视为“幸运的”。中彩票是幸运的。Fortuitous是指“纯属偶然”。举个例子,假设你没拿住篮球,结果篮球弹到路上击中了一辆车,这就是fortuitous(纯属偶然)。这个单词是中性的,既可以指偶然发生的好事,也可以指偶然发生的坏事。

  20. Plethora

  What you think it means: A lot of something。你以为单词的含义是:很多事物。What it really means: More than is needed。单词的真正含义是:多余。

  This is one I use incorrectly all the time. In fact, I almost used it a couple of times in this very article. Plethora simply means that there is more of something than is needed. For instance, you may think that 5,000 people is a plethora of people. However, when you put them into a hockey arena that seats 13,000 people, it’s actually less than half capacity and therefore not a plethora. If you had 13,500 people in that same arena, that would be a plethora of people。这个单词是我总用错的。其实,这篇文章里可能也有几次相关的错误。Plethora是指“再也不需要什么了”。比如,你可能觉得5000人是很多人,但是,如果你把这些人放到能容纳13000人的冰球场,那么人数还不到容量的一半,所以就不能算plethora(多余);如果你把13500人放到那个冰球场,那就是plethora(多余)的了。

  21. Total

  Total means exactly what you think it means but total is used unnecessarily on a frequent basis. When there is a total of 50 people who do something, the total is 50 whether or not you use the word “total。” Or you might hear someone say that they were totally surprised. Surprise is not a conditional emotion. You were either surprised or not. The use of total didn’t add anything of value to the sentence. In most cases, the definition is correct but using the word is repetitive when put in context with the rest of the sentence.Total的含义和你认为的完全一样,但是,total总是被不必要地使用。假设总共有50个人在干活,那么不管你有没有用total这个词,total(总数)肯定就是50。或许你听人说过他们totally(完全)被吓到了。“吓到”并不是一种条件性情绪,你要么被吓到,要么没有。句中添加一个total根本起不到任何意义。在多数情况下,这个单词的定义是正确的;但是,如果把单词放到字里行间就显得重复了。

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